Why do women live longer than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men, and why does this benefit increase over time? There isn’t much evidence and we’re left with only limited answers. Although we know that there are biological, behavioral and environmental factors which play a significant role in women living longer than males, we aren’t sure what percentage each factor plays in.

We have learned that women are living longer than males, regardless of weight. But it is not because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, علامات الحمل بولد especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means that in all countries that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a newborn boy.1

The chart above shows that while the female advantage exists everywhere, علامات الحمل بولد the global differences are significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the gap is only half a year.



In wealthy countries, the longevity advantage for women was previously smaller.

Let’s now look at how the advantage of women in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancy at the time of birth in the US during the period 1790 until 2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both genders living in America are living longer than they used to 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: Although the female advantage in life expectancy was quite small but it has risen significantly in the past.

You can check if the points you’ve listed are applicable to other countries with data by clicking on the “Change country” option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.

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