Why do women have longer lives than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What’s the reason women live longer than men? What is the reason does this benefit increase in the past? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence isn’t sufficient to draw a definitive conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, افضل كريم للشعر behavioral and environmental variables which all play a part in women who live longer than men, we don’t know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

We have learned that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. But it is not due to the fact that certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and افضل كريم للشعر women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from every country could be expected to live for longer than her brother.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that while the female advantage exists across all countries, the difference between countries is huge. In Russia women have a longer life span than males; while in Bhutan the gap is less than half each year.



In the richer countries, the advantage of women in longevity was smaller

Let’s examine how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancy at birth in the US from 1790-2014. Two distinct features stand out.

There is an upward trend: Men and women in the US live much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is increasing: While the female advantage in life expectancy used to be very small It has significantly increased over time.

When you click on the option “Change country in the chart, determine if these two points apply to other countries that have available data: Sweden, France and the UK.

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