Why do women live longer than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women have a longer life span than men? Why has this advantage gotten larger as time passes? The evidence isn’t conclusive and ابر التخسيس we’re only able to provide partial answers. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; but we don’t know exactly how strong the relative contribution of each factor is.

In spite of the amount, we can say that at least part of the reason why women live longer than men in the present and not previously, is to be due to the fact that a number of significant non-biological elements have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal line of parity – this means in all countries that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a newborn boy.1

Interestingly, this chart shows that the advantage of women is present everywhere, global differences are significant. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan, the difference is less that half a year.

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In countries with high incomes, the advantage of women in longevity used to be smaller

Let’s examine how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancies at birth in the US during the period 1790 until 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Women and men in the United States live longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is a widening gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be extremely small however it increased dramatically over the course of the last century.

You can verify that these principles are also applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the “Change country” option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.

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